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(Serbo-)Croatian: A Tale of Two Languages—Or Three? Or Four?

Submitted by on July 5, 2013 – 10:35 am 92 Comments |  
On July 1, 2013, Croatia became the 28th member of the European Union, 20 years after it won its independence in the bloody wars that ravaged the Balkans in the 1990s. The EU ascension of this relatively small (population just under 4.3 million in 2011), predominantly Catholic country raises a number of fascinating geopolitical, economic, and cultural issues. Croatia is the second of the former Yugoslavian republics to join the EU, following Slovenia (2004). Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia are all hoping to join the bloc, but when—and indeed whether—that will happen remains to be seen. Croatia’s ascension to the EU was met with much celebration in Zagreb and throughout the country, as well as in many international circles. However, many Croatians are less than thrilled over joining a divided union mired in a crippling debt crisis. As it is, Croatia is already grappling with several serious economic issues, which were only exacerbated by the euro crisis: a contracting economy, persistent inflation, high taxes, pervasive corruption, and brain drain. For some Croatians, becoming part of another union of nations seems like an unwelcome return to the past, risking their hard-won freedoms. Moreover, many EU countries remain wary of expansion, fearing that an overstretched bloc will become unmanageable.

With all the media brouhaha about Croatia’s ascension, one of our key issues at GeoCurrents has been largely ignored: the issue of the Croatian language. Multilingualism is central to the European Union’s cultural diversity. The European Commission employs a permanent staff of around 1,750 linguists, 600 staff interpreters, 3,000 freelance interpreters, and 600 support staff, making it one of the largest translation and interpretation services in the world. Still, this only amounts to some 25 staff interpreters per language, as the EU now has 24 official languages; their website allows one to read and/or hear a short text in Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish—and now Croatian as well.* But basic issues about what constitutes the Croatian language are far from settled.

As Linda B. Glaser of the Cornell Chronicle put it, “nowhere has linguistic research involved more discord than in the Balkans”. I recall that in the late 1990s a newly established online forum dedicated to Slavic languages and linguistics quickly devolved into a fierce argument about what the language(s) of former Yugoslavia should be called.** The online forum was then promptly discontinued by the moderators. Caution in the use of language labels in the Balkans is indeed called for, as they may fuel tensions in this volatile region where the linguistic situation is especially complex.

Much of the following exposition draws heavily on my discussions with my former colleague, Professor Wayles Browne of Cornell University, an expert in “the Serbo-Croatian area (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian)”, as he carefully phrased it on his webpage. Browne received his Ph.D. from the University of Zagreb in 1981 and has visited the area on numerous occasions since then, working on a wide spectrum of issues in South Slavic languages ranging from accent rules to clitic placement, and from loanwords to linguistic identity. “In the Balkans, whatever country you’re in the language serves as a national symbol. It’s a big part of their identity,” Browne said in an interview for the Cornell Chronicle. In a recent email exchange with me, he framed the issue as follows: If you ask people in post-Yugoslavian countries what language they speak, “Serbs say “We speak Serbian” (“Mi govorimo srpski”), Croatians say “We speak Croatian” (“Mi govorimo hrvatski”), and Bosniacs (and some other people from Bosnia who do not want to get into ethnic politics) say “We speak Bosnian” (“Mi govorimo bosanski”)”. It is hard to miss the fact that apart from the labels, the languages themselves are very similar. The same point is made by Geoffrey Pullum in a Chronicle of Higher Education article “A Trinity of Languages”: although each pack of cigarettes sold in Bosnia and Herzegovina carries the same “Smoking kills” label thrice—in Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian—each warning sounds exactly the same. In Croatian and Bosnian, moreover, it is spelled identically. (Ironically, he adds, the triple warning hardly makes any difference, as the Serbs still smoke more than any other nation in the world, according to the data published in The Economist.) As Pullum writes:

“The risk of death doesn’t bother the people here; what bothers them is the possibility that any ethnic group might miss out on being treated exactly the same as the others. So Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs must all be explicitly warned in their own separate languages.”

Serbo_Croatian_map

So how many languages are spoken in the “Serbo-Croatian area” (to use Browne’s term)? One? If so, what should it be called? “Serbo-Croatian”, as it was deemed until the 1990s (see the older map on the left)? “BCS” for Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian, as linguists now typically write, always using alphabetical order, lest one linguistic group takes offense? “BCMS”, lest we forget Montenegrin? Or even “Illyrian”, a term used by some scholars in the 1830s and 1840s for a unified literary language? (Not to be confused with ancient Illyrian, a poorly known non-Slavic language.) Or is the “Serbo-Croatian area” home to two distinct languages, Serbian and Croatian, as the Novi Sad Agreement of 1954 stated? (More on the agreement below.) Or are there three  separate languages, with Bosnian added to the mix? Or four, adding also Montenegrin? As we shall see in the remainder of this post, each of these positions has some arguments in its favor, so no definitive answer can be given.

Three_Grammars

Contrary to the common perception, this search for linguistic identity began long before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, dating back to before the creation of the country in the wake of World War I. Already in the second half of the 19th century, different labels were used for the emerging literary language of Croatia: “Illyrian”, “Croatian”, “Croatian or Serbian”, and so on, as can be seen from the images on the left (reproduced from Milan Moguš’s A History of the Croatian Language: Toward a Common Standard, pp. 172, 174, 202). The term “Serbo-Croatian” (alongside “Croato-Serbian”, both spelled without a hyphen in the language itself) was officially approved by the Novi Sad Agreement, which resulted from a meeting of Serb and Croat linguists in December 1954 and formally established equality of the two constituent tongues. However, this unity and equality was short-lived. In March 1967, a number of Croatian cultural and scientific institutions issued the Declaration on the name and status of the Croatian literary language, which called for the use of four official languages in Yugoslavia: Slovenian, Croatian, Serbian, and Macedonian. State authorities launched a merciless attack on the Declaration and its signatories, which only intensified after Josip Broz Tito, president of Yugoslavia, intervened in 1971. Work on the Croatian dictionary was then brought to a halt. An orthographic manual, Hrvatski pravopis, published in Zagreb in 1971, was destroyed by the authorities (a surviving copy, however, was smuggled out of the country and published in London in 1972). Members of the related Croatian Spring Movement, which sought enhanced autonomy from Belgrade, were persecuted as “counter-revolutionaries” and some were imprisoned. It was not until the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the 1990s that the seeds of the Croatian Spring Movement were allowed to blossom—bringing the issue of language identity back into focus.

hlaholice_cyrilice

Curiously, Google Translate offers translation between Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian as if they were distinct languages—unsurprisingly, it does a fine job of it: after all, for the most part all it has to do is map strings of words to themselves, or at most respell them. When it comes to writing, a strong split differentiates Croatian and Serbian, as Serbian is officially written in the Cyrillic alphabet, similar to that of Russian, owing largely to the influence of the Orthodox Church. Yet despite the symbolic and historical significance of Cyrillic, some Serbians advocate switching to the Roman alphabet. Unlike Serbian, Croatian is written in the Roman script due to the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, which began when the ancestors of modern Croats were converted to (Western) Christianity by their Frankish rulers.***

In historical terms, however, the situation is considerably more complicated. Although the Croats adopted Latin as their ritual language after their conversion to Christianity, they subsequently turned to Old Church Slavonic, a language much closer to the their vernacular than either Latin or the indigenous Dalmatian Romance tongues. Old Church Slavonic was originally written in the Glagolitic alphabet, invented ca. 863 CE by Saint Cyril, for whom the Cyrillic alphabet is named, and his brother Methodius. In accordance with the Byzantine tradition of autonomy and equality for all the languages of eastern Christianity (Georgian, Armenian, Syriac, Coptic, etc.), Glagolitic was created as “a unique and homogeneous graphic system” (Horace Lunt, Old Church Slavonic Grammar, 2001, p. 15); its letters are markedly different from the corresponding letters of the Greek or Roman alphabets. Until the 12th century, Glagolitic was the only script used for Croatian (Roman alphabet was used to write Latin and Italian). As late as the 17th century, Glagolitic was still widely used in Croatia; according to Lunt, “a few priests in northern Dalmatia still use glagolitic missals to this day” (ibid, p. 16). Eventually, Glagolitic was replaced in most of its former range by Cyrillic, whose letters look more like those of the Greek, Roman, and in some cases Hebrew alphabets. (The image on the left shows Glagolitic and corresponding Cyrillic letters.)

Many linguists brush such distinctions in the writing system aside, as they are only interested in the spoken language. “But when you look at how people use language in practice, writing is very important and standardization is important and prestige factors matter,” explains Wayles Browne in his Cornell Chronicle interview. In the former Yugoslavia, the distinctions in the way people speak—and even more so, in the way people think they speak—are very subtle indeed.

Bosnian_Croatian_Serbian_Montenegrin_Bosniak

Let’s begin by looking at the labels people use for their language in the “Serbo-Croatian area”. It has been claimed—even by linguists—that the name of a language is always derived from the name of the people who speak it, not from the country in which they live. This generalization does seem to work for most languages in Europe and elsewhere. For example, Danes, though they are from Denmark, speak Danish rather than “Denmarkish”; Poles speak Polish, not “Polandish”; and there was never a “Czechoslovakian language”. Similarly, Austrians speak German, not “Austrian”, as do most of the Swiss.**** Canadians speak either English or French, not “Canadian”, and so on. But in the Balkans, most names for peoples, languages, and countries are indistinguishable: Albanians speak Albanian in Albania, Bulgarians speak Bulgarian in Bulgaria, Slovenes speak Slovenian in Slovenia, and so on. The same is true in the “Serbo-Croatian area”, as Browne’s description above (“Mi govorimo…”) shows. The only exception is the Montenegrins who typically refer to their language either as “Serbian” or as “Montenegrin”. Note that the label “Bosnian” is typically used to designate the language of Bosniaks (defined largely by their Muslim faith) in Bosnia. The term Bošnjak (‘Bosniak’, adjective: bošnjački) is rarely applied to their language (the Wikipedia map reposted on the left is a rare exception). However, as an ethnic designation, this term has existed for centuries; since independence, Bosniaks themselves have shown a clear preference for using this term instead of Musliman ‘Muslim’. However, Bošnjak/bošnjački should not be confused with Bosanac (‘Bosnian’, adjective: bosanski), which can apply to anyone originating from Bosnia. Here we see the Eastern European fixation on the distinction between “nationality” in the sense of country of origin and “nationality” in the sense of ethnic (read, “religious or linguistic”) belonging; Russians are equally keen to distinguish rossijane (anyone from Russia) and russkie (ethnic Russians).

Bosnian

The country-language correlation, however, falls apart if we consider the census data (here, from 2006) more closely. For example, as can be seen from the map posted above, not everybody in Bosnia speaks “Bosnian” (here and below, I use the terms in quotes to designate labels that people assign to their own language). “Bosnian” is what people claim to speak in the core area of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in the northwestern area around Bosanska Krupa. The official state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, however, is politically divided into two ethnically defined units, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska; in the former area, some people label their language “Croatian”, while in the latter the term “Serbian” is used. The language labels used in Bosnia thus correspond most closely to the ethno-religious designations: Muslims Bosniacs call their language “Bosnian”, Eastern Orthodox Serbs refer to it as “Serbian”, and Catholic Croats use the label “Croatian”. However, this equation of ethnic and religious labels is a relatively recent one. It emerged effectively during Tito’s rule, when “uneducated political commissars and party functionaries decided the fate” of languages and peoples (Robert Greenberg, Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its Disintegration, p. 115), much like their “colleagues” in the Soviet Union did. According to Greenberg (ibid, p. 32), “by the late 1960s, it was anomalous for a Serb to self-identify as a Catholic or Muslim, just as it was most unlikely for a Croat to self-identify as Orthodox or Muslim”. In 1971, the Yugoslav authorities elevated the Muslim Slav population to the status of a constituent nation in Yugoslavia, thus formally equating religious and ethnic identity and creating “the forerunner to the post-1992 Bosniac people” (ibid, p. 32).

Montenegro

The correlation between ethno-religious and linguistic labels is also evident in other areas of the former Yugoslavia. For example, the two maps of Montenegro posted here—ethnic (on the left) and linguistic (on the right)—show that Bosnians in the country speak “Bosnian” or “Bosniak”, Albanians speak “Albanian”, Serbs speak “Serbian”, while Montenegrins speak either “Serbian” or “Montenegrin”. According to this map, the latter label is only used in the Cetinje region.

Vojvodina

Nor is Serbia uniformly “Serbian”-speaking. Linguistic heterogeneity is particularly marked in the northern autonomous province of Vojvodina. The juxtaposition of ethno-linguistic and religious maps (from Wikipedia) shows once again a near-perfect correlation: areas of Eastern Orthodox majority or plurality are Serbian-speaking, the two areas with a Protestant majority/plurality are Slovak-speaking, and areas of Catholic majority/plurality are Hungarian-speaking.

Croatian_dialects

As for Croatia, according to the map posted above, most people speak “Croatian” (with the exception of several small “Serbian”-speaking pockets). Yet if we consider closely how people actually speak, as opposed to what they think they speak, a more complex picture emerges, with three distinct dialects spoken across Croatia, named after their pronunciation of the word for ‘what’: što or šta in Shtokavian, ča or ca in Chakavian, kaj or kej in Kajkavian. Chakavian is spoken by the inhabitants of the Dalmatian coastal area and on some of the islands in the Adriatic, as well as on the Istrian Peninsula. The northern area near Zagreb is home to Kajkavian, and Shtokavian is spoken elsewhere (see map on the left).

Serbo_croatian_dialects_historical_distribution

Note that different maps vary as to their depiction of dialectal areas, with Shtokavian being much less prominent on maps reflecting the linguistic situation in the past, such as the Wikipedia map on the left, which purports to depict “Serbo-Croatian dialects prior to the 16th-century migrations”. As a result of these migrations, which were due mostly to the pressure from the Ottoman Empire, the distribution of dialects was considerably changed; Chakavian dialect in particular lost much ground and was reduced to a narrow coastal strip.

Shtokavian_3_subdialects

While the Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects are spoken only in Croatia, different forms of Shtokavian are found in other former Yugoslavian countries. Different scholars distinguish two, three, or more forms of Shtokavian, as shown on the map posted above and the two maps on the left. The breakup of Shtokavian into subdialects is based mostly on the reflex of a certain old vowel, “jat”. Thus, the main split is into Eastern, or Ekavian, and Western, or Ikavian/Ijekavian, subdialects. Shtokavian_subdialects1988Eastern Shtokavian is spoken in most of Serbia, as well as in Montenegro. Western Shtokavian (which some scholars further subdivide into separate Ikavian and Ijekavian varieties) is found in parts of Croatia, as well as in most of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and a western portion of Serbia. The dialectal picture is completed by Torlakian, spoken in southeastern Serbia; some dialectologists consider it a separate dialect, while others regard it as merely a transitional form linking Shtokavian to Macedonian and hence Bulgarian. The upshot of the preceding discussion is that the “Serbo-Croatian area” exhibits great variety when it comes to pronunciation, spelling, word choice, and even grammar. Moreover, these dialectal differentiations are important for national standard languages, which go back at least to the mid-1800s. Unlike in many other parts of the world, standardized forms really matter in the Balkans. “People get to criticize each other for not obeying the standard, and they can draw some unwarranted conclusions, like ‘anyone who speaks like that must be lazy’,” explains Wayles Browne.

standard_languages

But the differences between the standard Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian are even more subtle than those between regional dialects because all three groups use a form of Shtokavian for their national languages. In particular, most Serbs in Serbia, including speakers of Torlakian in southeastern Serbia, use as their standard the Eastern (Ekavian) variety of Shtokavian. Bosnians, Croats, and many Serbs who live outside Serbia, however, use as their standard the Western (Ikavian/Ijekavian) form of Shtokavian. For example, almost everyone in Bosnia speaks Shtokavian, in either Western or Eastern form, and almost everyone regards Western Shtokavian as their standard, although some refer to it as “Serbian”, some as “Croatian”, and some as “Bosnian”. But if these geopolitical labels are set aside, one can now speak of the Bosnian national standard language, in as much as dictionaries and orthography books (pravopisi) from neither Croatia nor Serbia are regarded as authoritative in Bosnia. Thus, Bosnians use the same standard language, but apply different labels to it, depending on their religious affiliation.

The situation in Croatia is the opposite of that in Bosnia: while it is dialectally highly differentiated (with three major dialects, as discussed above), and “all three dialects were used by Croats as the ‘raw material’ upon which to base their literary language” (Moguš, p. 12), yet all the inhabitants of Croatia share the same standard language, based primarily on Western Shtokavian (even more precisely, on the Eastern Herzegovinian variety of Shtokavian). This situation is particularly unusual because Western Shtokavian is not (and was not) the dialect of the capital, Zagreb. Unlike the French, who chose the dialect of Paris (Île-de-France) as the basis for their standard, or the Russians, who picked the dialect of Moscow and St. Petersburg, the Croatians did not use Kajkavian as the basis for their national standard. Until the standardization of Croatian began in the early 1800s, some Croatian writers wrote and published in Kajkavian and some wrote and published in Chakavian. However, in the mid-1800s standardization efforts converged on Western Shtokavian because it had the largest number of native speakers at the time (Moguš, p. 169).

In fact, the creation of standard Serbian and standard Croatian went along largely parallel lines. As Browne writes  in “What is a standard language good for, and who gets to have one?”, the two national standards were “based on very similar material, to some extent the same material (as when Vuk Karadžić’s Serbian Dictionary was taken as part of the Croatian word stock in the late 1800’s).” But the two national standards still differ in their pronunciations, vocabulary choices, and sentence structures. For example, “the Croats followed a policy of purism in issues of vocabulary, while the Serbs were largely concerned with remaining true to the vernacular language” (Greenberg, p. 47). However, the purist policy of eliminating internationalisms and perceived Serbianisms, which characterizes the standard Croatian today, goes back centuries; it was embraced with particular fervor at the time of the Croatian Fascist state (1941-1945). As a result of this purism, standard Croatian relies heavily on “native Croatian” words, including archaic or newly coined ones, turning occasionally to words found in the Kajkavian or Chakavian dialects (ibid, p. 121). Examples include the Slavic-derived zračna luka (literally ‘air harbor’) rather than aerodrome, munjovoz (literally ‘lightning vehicle’) instead of tramvaj ‘tram’, osposoba instead of kvalifikacija ‘qualification’, and so on. Standard Croatian retained native names for calendar months, whereas standard Serbian uses the Gregorian januar, februar, mart, and so on. The Croats play nogomet (literally ‘foot-throwing’), while the Serbs play fudbal ‘soccer’. Some of the differences between the two national standards are morphological: our readers in Zagreb use preglednik ‘browser’ to read GeoCurrents, while those in Belgrade use pregledač. Although standard Croatian has loanwords from Latin and Hungarian, prescriptivist linguists in Zagreb tend to view Turkish and Russian borrowings negatively, while displaying “tolerance towards borrowings from lending languages of nations for which the Croats have felt cultural affinity”: French, Italian, Hungarian (ibid, p. 123). In contrast, their colleagues in Belgrade have made known their bias against German loanwords and acceptance of Russian loanwords (ibid, pp. 53-54, 124). These prescriptivist efforts purposefully result in reduced mutual intelligibility in the “Serbo-Croatian area”. As for the future, it remains to be seen whether “after the next generation of Croats, Bosniacs, Serbs, and Montenegrins assume positions of power, they truly will not be able to understand one another any longer” (ibid, p. 167) or if the integration of Croatia—and possibly of other former Yugoslavian countries—into the European Union will reverse this process.

 

_______________________

* Five other languages—Catalan, Galician, Basque, Scottish Gaelic, and Welsh—are not official languages of the EU but have a semi-official status: treaties are officially translated into those languages and citizens of the EU have the right to correspond with the Union’s institutions using them.

** Slovenian and Macedonian, however, are exceptions here. Though their respective countries used to be constituent parts of Yugoslavia, Slovenians and Macedonians speak distinct languages, related to yet not mutually understandable with the “Serbo-Croatian”. Macedonian is most closely related to Bulgarian; some Bulgarians indeed consider it a dialect of Bulgarian.

*** Like Croatian, Bosnian is typically written in the Roman alphabet.

**** Other Swiss citizens speak French, Italian, or Romansh.

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  • Randy McDonald

    It’s my understanding that Latin script has become increasingly popular in Serbia for writing Serbian, to the extent that Cyrillic usage is becoming confined to official usage and traditionalists. See

    http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2008/0529/p20s01-woeu.html

    The extent to which this is actually true is somewhat unclear to me, but it’s not impossible to imagine Serbian shifting to Latin script. Unification with Latin script-using Croatia in a west-leaning Yugoslavia may have been decisive.

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      Thanks for your comment, Randy! I am not sure to what extent the use of the Roman alphabet for Serbian (in Serbia) is as widely spread as this article (thanks for the link!) makes it sound. As far as I know, it is not. But I would like to hear more on this from people “on the ground” (so to speak).

      • BorisDenisov

        в Черногории оба алфавита равны

        • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

          Yep, in Montenegro they haven’t decided yet which language they write or which language they speak either… :)

      • Randy McDonald

        I also found this article, FWIW.

        http://www.serbianna.com/columns/mccoy/001.shtml

        Beware the source–Serbianna tends strongly towards the nationalist–but …

        There’s this paper, as well, which does make specific claims as to the greater frequency of Latin as compare to Cyrillic.

        http://academia.edu/2961065/Vejnovic_D._and_Jovanovic_T._2012_._Reading_sentences_in_Serbian_Effects_of_alphabet_and_reading_mode_in_self-paced_reading_task

        • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

          Thanks for the links, Randy! The second paper in particular is curious.

          • Veljko

            Now, I don’t know if it counts as a proper citation or not but I’m from Serbia and have lived here most of my life, and I can tell you that:

            (a) In practice, if not in standard, Serbian is written with either the Roman alphabet or the Cyrillic one.

            (b) The Roman alphabet is used far more frequently, mostly because of computers. I, myself, use the Roman alphabet for shorthand and Cyrillic for longhand.

            (c) Schools teach both at an early age. There are no literate Serbs who cannot use either.

            As for the question of language, well, I can attest to this: I can understand the Croats and they can understand me. Same for Bosnians and Montenegrins[1].

            Does that make us the same language? I don’t know what else _can_. I understand a friend from Zagreb far, far better then I do one from Vranje, say. To claim that there is some inseparable linguistic boundary just because there is a _state_ boundary in the way is ridiculous.

            As far as I can make out, the differences are about the same as between American English and British English. Spelling differences, some differences in terminology, but basically the same language spoken in the same way.

            It needn’t be called Serbian, or Serbo-Croatian, or Croato-Serbian. I’ve no quarrel with it being officially named Illyrian. But to separate it by force just to satisfy petty vanities seems, to me, folly. Much like the newspeak program now undertaken by Croatian authorities is folly. If they persist with the invention of words and perscriptivist tyranny they will reach a point when they will have to _translate_ Krleža and Cesarić[2], while Serbs can read them as they were written.

            This does not seem right to me. It seems disrespectful to the greatest Croatian writers, and cruel to future generations.

            Hope this provided a helpful inside perspective.

            [1] Up until quite recently, in fact, nobody knew that there was such at thing as ‘Montenegrin.’ The most famous person from Montenegro, Petar Petrović Njegoš, a bishop-prince and poet, was for the longest time proudly described as “The Wisest of All the Serbs.” (Which he has a far shot at being, incidentally).

            [2] I heard, recently, that there’s a new movement to declare the copula ‘da’ a Serbianism and remove it. My favorite Cesarić poem, Povratak, has it in the first stanza. If being written by _Cesarić_ doesn’t make it as Croatian as it is Serbian I don’t know what does.

          • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

            Thank you for sharing your insights, Veljko!

          • Randy McDonald

            If Cyrillic really is encountered less often than Latin, it would make sense if people literate in Serbian had a harder time reading Cyrillic than Latin.

          • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

            That’s an interesting issue…

          • Srdjan

            Cyrillic is learned in preschool and 1st grade, Latin script in 2nd grade. Textbooks in elementary school are all (and always were in Serbia) in Cyrillic. Many dailies are printed in Cyrillic.
            As somebody above mentioned — every literate Serb understands both scripts equally, to the extent that if you show a paragraph in Serbian to somebody to read quickly and hide it afterwards, many people will not remember which script it was written in :)

          • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

            Thank you contributing this information!

      • Iuppiter

        Well, anyone who has ever been to Serbia, would know that the Roman alphabet is on equal terms with the Cyrillic script. It’s just about fifty-fifty…

  • Milenko

    In the former Yugoslavia, there is one language that is Serbian, the rest is nonsense.

    As in the U.S., Australia and Canada etc. English-speaking…

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig
    • avalanews

      Shtokavian = Serbian
      Chakavian = Croatian
      Kaykavian = Croatized Slovenian

      • Veljko

        The problem with that taxonomy, I fear, is that it leaves the most of Croatia speaking Serbian. I feel they might object to this, don’t you?

        • avalanews

          It’s a fact. USA, Australia, Canada speaks English, Switzerland, Austria – German. Of course, with local features. I can’t figure out why they haven’t chosen Chakavian for the standard. It’s exclusively Croatian, and they would avoid the problems. Not shtokavian iyekavian, spoken by less then 10% of Croats.

          • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

            At the time, Shtokavian was spoken by more Croats than any other dialect, apparently. Sadly, I don’t have figures…

          • Jose

            Eastern Herzegovinian (assuming the dialect map is accurate) seems to be linked with the Serb Migrations. In that case one could say the basis for the Croatian standard is a Serbian dialect of sorts.

          • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

            Yes, that’s one way to look at it.

          • Strsljen

            That is because prior to WW1 liberation from the A&H empire Croats from the Cakavian areas and Slovenia actually spoke and utilised Germanic languages. Shtockavian was preserved due to the tendancy to view Italian and German languages as foreign threats. After WW1 the attitude of the Shtockavian speakers was join in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Slavonia and Dalmatia threatened to leave the Central croats (cakavian speakers) if they kept dragging the chain. The end of the day it is the theme of the day.

          • Strsljen

            *Sorry meant Kaykavian

          • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

            Thanks for sharing that, fascinating stuff.

          • Iuppiter

            Shtokavian is spoken only today by ”more Croats than…”. Historically, it was not spoken the most.

          • Iuppiter

            What is more even more important, or characteristic, if you prefer, than ‘Chakavian’ or ‘Shtokavian’, is that Croatian uses ”ikavica”, which you do not have in Serbian language at all. Only Croats within Serbia speak, locally and scattered, that specific variation. And, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was basically Croatian before the Turks invaded, the Croatian population also use ”ikavica”, although ”ijekavica” prevails currently, due to the political decisions and their enforcement.

          • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

            Yes, this distinction is indicated on some of the more detailed dialectal maps in the post.

      • Saim Dušan Inayatullah

        That was the view of the aforementioned Vuk Karadžić, and Serb romanticism is steeped in this stuff. Keep in mind they also claimed that Western Bulgarians (including Macedonians) are Bulgarized Serbs. The argument is that because Čakavian was the original Croatian literary language and the first Croat state was essential a phenomenon of the Čakavian areas, only Čakavian is truly Croatian. Furthermore, if we exclude Dubrovnik and Slavonia, Štokavian was introduced to and became hegemonic in central and southern Croatia because of immigration from lands to the east which are now inhabited primarily by Serbs.

        The idea has not been totally rejected by Catholics in all of Balkan history, despite its polemical nature today. There have been (few, admittedly – and nowadays none) Catholic Shtokavians in Dubrovnik and Hercegovina (c.f. Ivo Andrić for the latter) who have claimed Serbian nationality. There were also Croat intellectuals that claimed the existence of a “Serbo-Croat” nation, but this was seen as insolidary with Slovenes and Bulgarians and was ultimately eclipsed by the Yugoslav identity.

        For their part, Croats explain this as the Serbophilia among pan-Slavists of ethnic Croat origin, rather than proof of an inherently Serbian national character of Shtokavian. Croatian nationalists then turn it back on the Serbs, claiming that the Orthodox populations of Croatia and Bosnia are actually of Vlach/Romanian that have accepted a false Serb identity because of religion.

        I’m not a particular fan of either Serb or Croat nationalism and romanticism, and as an internationalist and student of linguistics my main concern here is conserving linguistic and cultural diversity. Preserving Čakavian and Kajkavian varieties in Croatia, imho, will not be achieved by banging on about how all Štokavians are actually Serbs and that Catholics and Muslims who speak the language have just been ‘brainwashed’.

        I say this because, from what I’ve seen, one of the main arguments from Croats agains the standardization and promotion of Čakavian and Kajkavian varieties is that this would be a tacit acceptance of the idea that Štokavian is a foreign, Serb language, and sow disunity among Croats. This leads to the surreal situation where the Croatian standard – very similar to Serbian – is being distanced from its eastern neighbour essentially through purism, withought any input from Croatian dialects that actually -are- very different to Serbian! For that reason, I think the Norwegian model of having two standards – Serbian-like Štokavian being equivalent to Danish-based Bokmal and Kajkavian and Čakavian being equivalent to the more conservative, autochtonous Nynorsk).

        I hope that gave a better and more neutral overview of what is known as “linguistic pan-Serbism” than the unsubstantiated declarations of the user above.

      • Iuppiter

        This is not correct, Croatian language, since a long time ago, consists of ‘Chakavian’, ‘Shtokavian’, and ‘Kaykavian’. The ‘Kaykavian’ was spoken in Croatia even at the times when Slovenian language officially did not exist, i.e. was not recognized by anyone. The history of Croatian language is a long-winding and complicated, but it is a language that has existed for 13 centuries. Not so for the Serbian language, and Slovenes were erased from the map for centuries. Still they and their language resurfaced! And this is precisely because they have had their own language, in the same vein as the Croats have.

        • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

          For reasons that are unclear to me, you equate recognition with existence. Why is that?

    • SirBedevere

      Do point this out to Slovenians, Macedonians, Albanians, and Hungarians, among others. Are you suggesting that I call all these languages Serbian when I cross the borders of the old Yugoslavia?

    • Veljko

      There were at least three[1]: Slovene, Macedonian, and that other language. And there’s really no good reason for it to be called Serbian, as you well know. Serbs speak it, sure, but so do the others. You’d bridle, no doubt, at being told you speak Croatian. Why expect less from your Croatian neighbors and erstwhile brothers and sisters?

      [1] Discounting a great many languages of various minorities, of course. But their status is not in question. It is absolutely impossible to confuse Hungarian and Serbian[2], say.
      [2] Unless you are a Hollywood movie director, of course, in which case all languages from the Balkans (or near the Balkans or within a few hundred miles of the Balkans) are mutually interchangeable. Feh.

      • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

        Well said! Curious how nationalists of all stripes never see how their arguments can be used against them…

    • Iuppiter

      You may be right, but in that case, you should call that language Croatian…

  • TimUpham

    I know so many people from the former Yugoslavia, you said they ach for the good old days of Tito. But Yugoslavia was held together simply by dictatorship. First the dictatorship of the Serbian kings, then by the dictatorship of Tito. In Yugoslavia, he was declared president for life, but unlike Francisco Franco, he did not groom a successor. So it was to be a revolving presidency of the different presidents of the Yugoslav republics. Franco groomed King Juan Carlos, who returned Spain to a democracy. But when I was in Yugoslavia, everybody there was so nice. I did not know who was Serbian, Croatian, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, or Muslim. Then Yugoslavia returned to the savagery of World War II. I was involved with rebuilding the city of Dubrovnik, after the Yugoslav Navy opened fire on it, point blank. It took effort to rebuild those historical buildings. But now Croatia, gets the tourist dollars off of it.

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      Oh no, I never said that the Croats are aching for the days of Tito, write the opposite, they are worried that EU ascension would be like the days of Tito…

      • TimUpham

        What is so odd, is that Tito was ethnically Croatian. What the Croats ach for now, is the Utase. The fascist parties of the 1930′s, are making a comeback.

      • Heinrich Myersen

        So they’re worried about prosperity and freedom to travel all over Europe as Tito allowed them to travel all the way from Slovenia to Macedonia?

        Yeah, in all fairness, like every politician, Tito had some very harsh tactics in the post-WW2 era in confronting disunity (mainly by silencing religious fanatics, secularizing and killing off radical elements i.e. Croat Ustasa, Serb Cetniks, and Radical Clerics) but he was the best thing to ever happen to Yugoslavians. His only flaw was not properly preparing for his own demise.

        • SirBedevere

          If every politician kills dissidents, then many of them do so in ways that leave absolutely no evidence to the historian. If Marshall Tito was the best thing to happen to Yugoslavians, it my be because they only existed for a little over seven decades.

          • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

            Well-said!

    • Veljko

      In fairness, sir, he was declared a president-for-life at the age of eighty-two. If you’ll forgive the grim humor of it, he was president for life, but not for long.

      Before that he was elected, just as his successors were elected. You may not like Yugoslavia, fair enough, but it wasn’t quite as dictatorial as you may imagine.

      • TimUpham

        I loved Yugoslavia, and it saddened me that the country broke up violently. Because I could not pick who were my favorites, all — the Serbians, Croatians, Slovenians, Bosniaks, and Macedonians were my favorites. All of them were so nice to me, when I was traveling throughout the country.

        • Veljko

          I apologize for claiming that you did, then. For all the violence, and it was terrible, I expect you would find the countries, all of them, as welcoming as you once did.

          The unspeakable secret of the people who were once Yugoslavian, the one very few will cop to, except in the privacy of their own heads, is that we are, all of us, of a type.

          You, yourself, had trouble telling them — us — apart, yes? That’s no accident. :)

  • TimUpham

    Can your write something up about the Bogomils. I was fascinated by their monolithic tombstones.

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      Thanks for the suggestion, Tim.

  • SirBedevere

    The Croatian policy sounds like what most nationalist movements were doing in the Kingdom of Hungary in the nineteenth century. Of course, which elements were kept and which were excluded varied based on the movement’s understanding of national history. The Hungarians wanted to exclude German words, the Austrians being perceived as oppressors, but tended to keep Turkish words (a bit of proto-Turanianism in a way). Most of the other movements excluded Hungarian words, since the Hungarians were perceived to be a much more proximate oppressor.

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      Excellent point!

    • Iuppiter

      There are lots of Hungarian-originated words in Croatia, as well as the proper names. The Croatian language shared the same space, virtually, with the Hungarian counterpart, for centuries. Still, the two are quite different. I hope now that Croatia is in the EU the two people will get closer again. Actually, the Croats feel their best neighbors are precisely Hungarians, and Slovenians, while we are big friends with Slovaks and Poles, too. We love all the Europeans living in the EU, plus the Swiss and, of course, particularly the Icelanders, who are not in there. :-)

      • SirBedevere

        And there are a number of Hungarian words that probably originate in Croatian, though of course differentiating origination in what we would call Croatian or Serbian is difficult. Part of the Hungarian nationalist language purification movement of the early nineteenth century was an effort to remove such words in favor of neologisms from Finno-Ugric roots, but they had little success. I’m quite glad they had so little success, since Hungarians and Croatians had, indeed, been part of the same cultural family since at least 1102. My favorite example is the great Hungarian epic poet Zrinyi Miklos and his brother, the great Croatian epic poet Petar Zrinski.

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  • Heinrich Myersen

    The Croatian media backed by their government are inventing new words all the time. They are making a consistant push to distance and separate their language as something unique. Unfortunately for them, the majority of the population is middle-aged or aging and have no desire to add new vocabulary to their daily diction.

    • Miki Boj

      WERE inventing. It is not happening anymore, most of this “novogovor” rijeci never got accepted by the majority of the people.

  • Bob Rock

    I’m Slovene and learnt the unified “serbo-coratian” as the official dominant language in the ex-yu once upona a time. My simplifed knowledge sees the difference between Serbian and Croatian comparable to that of American and British English – disregarding the script.
    Interesting enough, the post 1991 diversification in practice came with different sentiments. Croatians in particular got extremely sensitve for mistaking a genuine croatian expresion for a serbian expression for a serbian one. Serbians on contrary didn’t mind about it. But that’s a reflection of a general separatist (Croatian) and hegemonist (Serbian) attitude.
    It’m curious for the differnces so I entertain myself by reading product import declarations which are normally small-printed in all the languages (Sr-Cro-BiH).
    However whatever meaning these differences may have, all these languages still seem to be forming a pretty common media market, pointing to the fact that any native speaker practically adopts all three or four languages automatically. Even extreme nationalism cannot dumb you down far enough to lose that ability. :)

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      Thanks for sharing your thoughts, Bob Rock!

      • Bob Rock

        Another thing to the point I remember: When Croatian TV aired Serbian films for the first time after independency, they decided -in a proper manner- to subtitle them in Croatian. However things turned quite bizzare and even most determined Croatians seem to have given up that idea pretty quickly. Nowadays the media material sees practiacally no borders towards a notably sized market. Be it music, press or TV – Soap operas in particular. :)

        • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

          Thanks for sharing this. The situation in former Yugoslavia is comparable to that in Scandinavia, it seems…

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  • Mark

    These are similar to the South Slavic languages​​, which are quite different among themselves.

    http://ielanguages.com/eurolang.html

  • Mark

    Example different Croatian language and Serbian language.

  • Mark

    Chatolic-latin and Ortodox-cirilyc

  • Mark

    Script to la

  • Iuppiter

    If it’s ‘so close’, then it can be only Croatian language, because both the Croats and our language existed centuries before the Serbs were even mentioned, let alone got on the map. If it is not the same, then OK, let it be. Croatian, Serbian, whatsoever.
    Croatian language surely exists, for a longer period of time than Serbian.

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      And this is based on what, besides your nationalistic agenda?

  • Iuppiter

    BTW, the differences between Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian, are also ‘so small’… They certainly do not subtitles, just as the Portuguese and Spaniards do not need them either.

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      Indeed. We have discussed it in another post.

  • Iuppiter

    Another thing, this text is loaded with inaccuracies, and subjective observations, which are not backed up by the facts… The author omitted to mention lots of important points, obviously having a limited knowledge, and understanding of the Croatian language and its history.

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      You have specific corrections or additions? Bring them on. It’s, naturally, impossible to mention every single thing in a short article such as this, so I decide what to pick and wht to put aside.

      • Iuppiter

        I agree, it is just a bad article. I do not know the author, and have nothing against him personally.

        • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

          The author of this article is me. Funny how you didn’t realize that, with all your “smart” comments. Unlike you, I don’t hide behind any nicknames.

  • Iuppiter

    Oh, I cannot believe ti… Someone is erasing my posts :-))

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      Nobody is erasing your posts, but if your ad hominem attacks continue, we will. Please refer to the comments policy (above the Comments section or in “About” section of the site).

      • Iuppiter

        Oh, where is the ‘nationalistic agenda’? I spoke the facts…

        And you are very opinionated, obviously.

        • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

          I am but unlike your opinions, mine are well-informed. And I am an owner of this blog, not a guest.

      • Iuppiter

        Hello…? What is ‘ad hominem’, namely, where is that man (homo)…? It seems like you have no clue what ‘ad hominem’ means. Sorry…

        • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

          In your desire to be offensive, you failed to realize that both Latin “homo” and English “man” are ambiguous between ‘person’ and ‘male person’ (other words that are likewise ambiguous in the subset fashion are “luck”, “child”, and “day”). “Ad hominem” means ‘personal’, in reference to a particular indivudual of either gender. The non-gendered meaning of “man” is also evidenced in “manslaughter” and “no man’s land”. Moreover, the non-gendered meaning of “man” is older in English…

  • Iuppiter

    what is particularly wrong here, is that it is said there are three distinct ‘regions’ (green, blue, purple). nothing is more wrong than that. the thing which is much more important is ”i-kavica”, ”i-yekavica”, or ”e-kavica”. this does not correspond with the map. like anything in Croatia, the situation is by far more complex than anyone who is not Croatian can grasp

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      Are you referring to the C-shaped map of Croatian? As you can see, there are several maps in this article that illustrate different aspects of the complex geolinguistic situation in the Balkans. As with virtually every other part of the world, no single map can depict all the different aspects at once (and still be readable, that is).

      • Iuppiter

        Well, Croatia is definitely C-shaped, it’s a croissant…  :-)  Shaped by the Ottoman Empire. Just, I think today you really cannot attribute ‘shtokavian’, or ‘kaykavian’, to any region, let alone ‘chakavian’. Nobody cares for it any more. The ‘shtokavian’ is dominant, accepted everywhere, although the other two still live, and will continue to live. They are regional, while ‘shtokavian’ is kind of regular, and official. What is more important, this is to preserve ‘ikavica’, [this is another aspect] which is not official, but keeps living in almost any region of Croatia. ‘Ikavica’ is genuinely Croatian, although dominant in Dalmatia, as a widely spoken dialect. But it is, and it always has been, present also in Istria, Slavonia, Lika, Herzegovina, Bosnia, the islands, and lots of pockets all over the place, across the ‘croissant’. In my opinion, although it looks like a lost battle right now, one day ‘ikavica’ might prevail. It seems far-fetched right now to say that, but I believe it may come true one day. You never know. There is no such an issue in Serbian, on the other hand, where ‘ekavica’ dominates, at large. In Vukovar, for instance, ‘ekavica’ is spoken even by many Croats, alongside with ‘iyekavica’. But ‘ekavica’ can be heard a lot in Hrvatsko Zagorje [where it goes together with the 'kaykavian'], north of Zagreb, as well as in the Zagreb local jargon.

        • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

          What you describe is exactly what I described: a complex situation where the local dialects spoken “on the ground” do not match up with accepted standards imposed as the official language. But this is true of most places and most times. As for your politicized agenda, there’s really no room for it here on GeoCurrents.

          • Iuppiter

            Well, I do not see anything as ‘politicized’, nor I am saying anything similar to what you said. I am really wondering how it happens that people like you, prejudiced and ‘politicized’ themselves, always take liberty to judge other people, who have different points of view. Your approach is not scientific, particularly in view of what you’ve been writing to me, and for my posts. Actually, I think you must have some agenda here. I don’t really know what it is, but I will rest my case, there is nothing else I can communicate on your website. The only thing I defend is the truth, which is obviously not your concern. You seem to be, unfortunately, prejudiced, and opinionated. I just wonder, what did you say to the Serbian guy who posted something like ‘there is only one language, and it is Serbian’…  This is so stupid, that it should never be heard any place, any time. If that is not ‘politicized’, I don’t know what is!  :-))

            RIP

          • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

            “I just wonder, what did you say to the Serbian guy who posted something like ‘there is only one language, and it is Serbian’…” — wonder no more, it’s here for all to see: I called him a nationalist and supported another commenter who berated him for his rantings.

            I described the dialectal situation pointing out that ‘ikavica’ etc. exist—that’s not scientific?! You proclaim that “one day ‘ikavica’ might prevail”—that not politicized?! And all you know how to do is to call other people stupid. Unlike you, I am not biased for or against Croats, Serbs, Bosnians… You, on the other hand, clearly are. So which one of us is prejudiced and opinionated? Look in the mirror.

  • Iuppiter

    moreover, it is not that ‘some’ Bulgarians consider Macedonian to be Bulgarian. make it: all Bulgarians…

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      I know some Bulgarians who don’t…

  • Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    عربی کلاسیک

    آلبانیایی کلاسیک

    64. کشیدن لباس به فرد به طور متوسط ​​، و در لباس زرد کمرنگ
    رفتن به جلو به عنوان بی خانمان ها ، و کرایه به تنهایی مانند یک کرگدن شاخدار .

    از تایلند، با عشق : 300 کیلوگرم طلا برای معبد بیهار

    پتنا :
    بیست کماندوهای از تایلند و گارد نزدیک به 300 کیلوگرم
    طلا در 13 جعبه در بدگایای Bodh Gaya در شهر بیهار آغاز شد و کار به پوشش
    گنبد 1،500 ساله ماهابودي معبد در زرق و برق .

    مقامات توسط یک تیم از کارشناسان فنی از تایلند به بشقاب طلا گنبد گفت :کار ​​مدتها در انتظار است .

    بعد از گذشت دو روز از 289 کیلوگرم طلا ، اهدا جانبازان بودایی از تایلند ،
    چهره در بدگایای Bodh Gaya در یک هواپیمای خصوصی از بانکوک و فنی
    کارشناسان در نهایت کار تحت تدابیر شدید امنیتی در داخل و اطراف آغاز شد
    او گفت که معبد N پک دورجی ، دبیر مدیریت بدگایای Bodh Gaya معبد ،
    کمیته .

    پک دورجی گفت : ” این یک لحظه شاد برای همه ما که منار مخروطی از معبد نگاه پر زرق و برق با طلا است ” .

    سعید آرویند کومار سینگ ، یکی از اعضای کمیته وکار ​​توسط کارشناسان
    در حال videographed به تایلند به دلیل آن را شامل برخورد با طلا .

    “تیم از 40 عضو، از جمله ده ها تن از کارشناسان و بیست کماندوهای ، از
    تایلند در بدگایای Bodh Gaya با طلا در 13 جعبه وارد برای تکمیل
    سینگ در 40 تا 50 روز کار است. “

    او سابق Pricha معاون نخست وزیر تایلند تیم منجر شده است.

    ” درباره 24 کماندوهای تایلند و تامین امنیت برای جعبه طلا نگه داشته و در محل معبد ، گفت:” سینگ .

    مدیریت منطقه و نیز مستقر امنیتی اضافی برای محافظت از طلا .

    شرکت در تایلند مستقر Kreing از سافورن ظروف و آموزشی ویبولیتین انجام کار .

    پک دورجی گفت : در سال گذشته در زمان پادشاه تایلند Bhumibol تصمیم Atulya برای پوشش گنبد معبد با طلا .

    اما آن را در زمان برخی از زمان به ترخیص کالا از گمرک از بررسی باستان شناسی
    هند ( ASI ) به کار می کنند. مقامات ASI نیز ارائه پشتیبانی فنی
    نظارت بر کار منبت طلا .

    نماز ویژه ای خواهد شد زیر درخت Bodhi مقدس به پشت معبد اصلی از 16 نوامبر برگزار می شود که در آن
    حدود 500 جانبازان از تایلند، از جمله کسانی که اهدا طلا ،
    به احتمال زیاد به شرکت پک دورجی گفت .

    به گفته وی، از اتمام مرحله اول کار مربوط به درمان شیمیایی در ماه اوت
    برای آماده سازی پایه و اساس آبکاری طلا .

    ” در حال حاضر، از پله ها در اطراف گنبد معبد نصب شده است برای فعال کردن کارشناسان برای رسیدن به بالا
    ساختار پوشش با ورق نازک از طلا ، او گفت: . “

    نخست وزیر نشان داده است بیهار نیز علاقه زیادی در کار است .

    سری از بمب در مجتمع معبد با چگالی کم در ماه ژوئیه منفجر شد .
    اما هیچ تلفات وجود دارد و هیچ خسارت برای ساختار باعث شد .

    و باستان حدود 180 فوت معبد ماهابوديساختار برای شما
    بین 5th 6th و ساخته شده است . از دست رفته است و از آن است
    در قرن 19th کشف شده توسط الکساندر کانینگهام ، که تاسیس
    و ASI در سال 1861 .

    معبد ماهابودي مقدس ترین زیارت است
    مرکز بودایی ها از سراسر جهان . این نشان دهنده جایی که
    خداوند گوتاما روشنگری به او معتقد بودند، و او را به نقل مکان کرد
    بودا.

  • Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    پالی درب در سرزمین بودا نشان داده شده است

    کمیسیون
    خدمات عمومی اتحادیه ( UPSC ) از هند به تازگی به زبان پالی باستان از
    لیست زبان های انتخابی تجویز و سؤال اصلی ورودی خدمات اداری هند ( IAS )،
    همچنین معمولا به عنوان خدمات ملکی هند شناخته شده حذف خواهند شد. این به عنوان یک حرکت تکان دهنده به بسیاری از آمد، به عنوان پالی است به عنوان زبان دوم محبوب در میان نامزدهای IAS در نظر گرفته . با
    این حال در تلاطم است که پس از این حادثه رخ داده است و استادان و معلمان و
    متخصص در زبان پالی در هند متوجه شدند که پالی است که بومی شبه قاره هند و
    زبان است که در آن بودا فاشDhamma (که آن هم به زبان بودایی کانن ) پالی به عنوان زبان های کلاسیک و ملی هند شناخته شده است. این
    باعث بسیاری از بودایی ها زندگی می کنند در سراسر جهان به متاسفانه متهم
    دولت هند از دادن درمان گام به مادرانه به زبان بودا در کشور خود .

    استاد
    و رئیس بخش مطالعات پالی و بودایی در Banares Siddharth سینگ آدرس دهی یک
    نشست رسانه ای در این مورد در کلمبو در هفته گذشته گفت: این اقدام بودایی
    در هند در هر دو زمینه مذهبی و قومی تبعیض .


    حذف از پالیآسیب بزرگ به مطالعات بودایی و درک از مذهب بودا در سرزمین
    مادری بودا است . پالی پایه و اساس برای درک بودیسم است . پس از این حرکت
    از دولت هند باید مخالف “

    “احساسات از بودایی در هند از طریق این قانون صدمه دیده است. ما به هند مانموهان سینگ، نخست وزیر نوشت ، به رهبر مخالفان و به اعضای در Rajya و Lok سبها در مورد این بی عدالتی بزرگ است. اما تا کنون آنها را به هر دلیل و یا توجیهی برای حذف پالی از بررسی خدمات ملکی هند داده نشده است . حذف از پالیآسیب بزرگ به مطالعات بودایی و درک از مذهب بودا در سرزمین مادری بودا است . پالی پایه و اساس برای درک بودیسم است . سینگ گفت: “بنابراین این حرکت از دولت هند باید مخالف است.


    من اعتقاد دارم که این اقدام تلاش برای انتقام از مردم کاست برنامه ریزی و
    جلوگیری از گسترش بودیسم در هند است. امروز هند در مورد نقض حقوق بشر سری
    لانکا صحبت کردن است ، اما چگونه می تواند به سری لانکا آنها انتقاد می
    کنند، زمانی که آنها خود نقض حقوق بشر در جامعه بودایی زندگی در هند ؟ “

    او
    در ادامه توضیح داد که این حرکت از دولت هند می تواند در هند از دست دادن
    روابط بین المللی با کشورهای بودایی در سراسر جهان و در طول اقامت خود در
    سری لانکا او برنامه ریزی شده به دست یک تفاهم نامه به کمیساریای عالی هند
    در سری لانکا در مورد این موضوع منجر شود که او انتظار دارد که این پیام را به دولت هند ارتباط برقرار کنید.

    “ما
    به هند مانموهان سینگ، نخست وزیر نوشت ، به رهبر مخالفان و به اعضای در
    Rajya و Lok سبها در مورد این بی عدالتی بزرگ است. اما تا کنون آنها به هر
    دلیل یا بهانه ای برای حذف پالی از داده نشده سؤال خدمات شهری هند “

    اظهار
    نظر در مورد عواقب حذف پالی از بررسی خدمات ملکی هند سینگ گفت: د فهرستی
    از پالی ممکن است نامزدهای متبحر در پالی از نشستن برای امتحان و پیوستن به
    خدمات مدنی هند جلوگیری ( که بودایی در هند است ) . او
    گفت: این نیز دولت هند از جمله خدمات خارجی خود را به افسران نادان از
    پالی اداره می شود ایجاد کند، در حالی که بودایی ها زندگی در هند حمایت
    دولت آنها را به حال از دست دادن و حفظ چند زیارتگاه ها و بناهای تاریخی آن
    به پایان رسیده است .

    “با
    حذف پالی از لیست ” افراد تایید شده ،UPSC آشکارا نقض مفاد قانون اساسی
    هند ( که در آن به حمایت سوگند خورده بود )؛ حذف پالی به منزله نقض حقوق
    اساسی اقلیت ( بودایی ها کمتر از 0.79٪ در هند ) و کمتر ممتاز ‘ طبقات برنامه ریزی و قبایل برنامه ریزی شده ‘ حفاظت شده توسط قانون اساسی از هند است. UPSC
    ‘ حقوق بنیادین در ” شهروندان هند حق برابری ” که تشکیل ‘ تبعیض بر مبنای
    دین ” نقض ماده 16 ، ” فرصت های برابر در امور اشتغال عمومی در قانون اساسی
    هند را نقض کرده است . د،
    فهرستی از پالی قانون اساسی هند و تحت عنوان ‘ اصول راهنمای سیاست های
    دولت ( ماده 46 ) که بیان می کند که ” ارتقاء منافع آموزشی و اقتصادی طبقه
    برنامه ریزی شده ، قبایل برنامه ریزی شده و دیگر بخش های ضعیف تر در جامعه
    را از بی عدالتی اجتماعی محافظت نقض کرده است و تمام اشکال استثمار است. ماده 335 ادعای طبقه برنامه ریزی شده و قبایل برنامه ریزی برای خدمات پست . سینگ
    گفت: ” همچنین ارائه طرح دعوا علیه UPSC به ” کمیسیون ملی برای طبقات
    برنامه ریزی و قبایل برنامه ریزی شده ” تحت مقررات خاص مربوط به کلاس های
    خاصی وجود دارد.

    Jathika هلا Urumaya ( JHU ) ، نماینده مجلس، ون . Athuraliye
    Rathana ترا که او نیز در حال حاضر در این کنفرانس مطبوعاتی گفت که این
    حرکت از دولت هند نقض حقوق بشر علیه مردم کاست زمانبندی زندگی در هند بود.

    ” من اعتقاد دارم که این اقدام تلاش برای انتقام از مردم کاست برنامه ریزی و جلوگیری از گسترش بودیسم در هند است. امروز هند در مورد نقض حقوق بشر سری لانکا صحبت کردن . اما چگونه می توانید سری لانکا ، آنها انتقاد زمانی که آنها خود را نقض حقوق بشر از جامعه بودایی زندگی در هند ؟ Rathana ترا گفت ، ” این یک عمل Brahmic کاست بر اساس ایدئولوژی Brahmic عقب از هند است.

    در
    همین حال زمانی که آینه روزانه در مورد این موضوع تماسسریلانکا وزارت امور
    خارجه ، گفت: منابع آنها هنوز برای دریافت اطلاعات جامع در این مورد بود. این غم انگیز است که بسیاری از مردم امروز در نظر پالی یک زبان مرده ” زمانی که اولین متون موجود بودایی در پالی نوشته شده است. این زبان بودا مورد استفاده برای انتشار Dhamma که در آن تمام تمدن بودایی تاسیس شد . کشور ما امروز یک کشور که در آن چند میلیون بودایی اقامت باقی مانده است.

    امروز بودیسم نه تنها یک دین است ، اما آن را به یک روش زندگی تبدیل شده است. امروز
    Dhamma بودا (که در پالی ) نه تنها شعار می دادند در زمینه آیین های
    بودایی در سراسر جهان است، اما آن را نیز انجام می شود و در زندگی روز به
    روز خود را زندگی می کردند. بنابراین
    اگر پالی یک زبان مرده است و ” منسوخ ” در جامعه امروز را به عنوان در نظر
    بسیاری به آن باشد، پس چگونه است که بسیاری از مردم در سراسر جهان امروز
    این زبان زندگی می کنند ؟

    PIX های جنگ – u- NA وان – niar – ACH چی

    http://www.dailymirror.lk/opinion/172-opinion/36388-pali-shown-the-door-in-buddhas-land-.html

    FREE ONLINE E- نالاندا پژوهش و دانشگاه تمرین

    ART دادن

    68 با تلاش های تحریک برای دستیابی به بالاترین ، با ذهن چسبناک نیست و تنبل،
    به طور کامل داده شده و با تلاش شرکت، کرایه به تنهایی مانند کرگدن تک شاخ .

    کلاسیک پالی

    68 . âraddhaviriyo paramatthapattiyà
    Alãnacitto akusãtavutti ،
    Daëhanikkamo thàma khalåpapanno
    khaggavisàõakappo مراقبت EKO .

    پالی و زبانی کلاسیک در حال حاضر تیپیتاکا است که به 74 زبان ترجمه شده است . و این همه به طور خودکار کلاسیک تبدیل شده است.

    برهمن حق را از زمان بسیار قدیم هر آنچه را که احساس علاقه آنها را تحت تاثیر قرار مخالفت کردند. حالا
    درست است که اکثریت تحصیل کرده و دیگران شروع به حرکت به عقب به بودیسم
    دین اصلی Jambudvipa و یک روز خوب دوباره آن را تبدیل به یک دین اکثریت و
    PRABUDDHA بهارات واقعیت تبدیل خواهد شد زیرا از دکتر BRAmbedkar ،
    Kanshiram و خانم مایاواتی . این است که با برهمن قابل تحمل نیست از این رو مسیر به دنبال آن بودایی درست است.

    حالا تمام چیزی است که شما داشته باشد.

    پرتاب از کنگره از قدرت و اجازه نمی دهد BJP به بازگشت . BSP
    پشتیبانی برای به دست آوردن کلید برای توزیع ثروت از کشور به همان اندازه
    در میان تمام بخش های جامعه برای رفاه ، شادی و صلح و همچنین به آنها را
    قادر به رسیدن به سعادت ابدی را به عنوان هدف نهایی خود را . این تنها امید ملت است.

  • Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    70. باید سخت کوش، عاقل، یاد گرفت و فکر برای رسیدن به تخریب ولع مصرف،
    بیدار تلاش برای به state1 uncompounded منجر شد، کرایه به تنهایی مانند کرگدن تک شاخ.

    VVPATs نیز نمی عاری از دستکاری. کد منبع از برنامه استفاده می شود
    در VVPATs به عموم مردم ساخته شده است. آموزش های لازم را باید به همه مقامات، رسانه ها و تمام عوامل غرفه حزب که در تمام انتخابات آینده کد منبع ارائه شده است. رسانه ها به بیدار کردن رای دهندگان در این زمینه برای نجات دموکراسی است.

  • Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    18) Classical Croatian

    18 ) Klasična Hrvatska

    8 . Metta Sutta .

    Dobrotu .

    143 . Što isplativo stvari treba biti učinjeno kako bi postigli taj smiriti stanje . .

    Biti u mogućnosti , ravno naprijed , prilično ravno naprijed , blag , nježan , a ne umišljeni .

    144 . Zadovoljan, jednostavno podržava , ima nekoliko stvari koje treba učiniti i lagani život ,

    Mentalne sposobnosti smirilo postati pametna , ne usuđujući , a ne pohlepno prilogu obitelji .

    145 . Najmanja sitnica pogledao dolje prema drugim mudracima ne bi trebalo biti učinjeno ,

    Mogu mentalno sreća i smirenje biti , možda sve dođe na dobrobit.

    146 . Tko je ikada živa stvar bude nemoćne osobe ili tvrtka ili na neki drugi način ,

    Duga ili veliki , srednje veličine , kratki ili vrlo male

    147 . Vidi i ne vidi , živi daleko i blizu ,

    Rođen je i da se rodi , – možda su sva bića biti dobro i sretno .

    148 Neka nitko ne razgovarati omalovažavanjem drugi , a bez razloga misle drugi kao manje vrijedne ,

    Možda ne žele neugodnosti u drugu s bijesnim odbojnog umu .

    149 . Kao što majka štiti ju je život jedini sin je misliti ,

    Razvijati tu istu misao prema svim bićima bezgranično .

    150 . Razvijati ljubaznosti previše prema svim bićima limitlessly

    Iznad , ispod , preko , bez prepreka , ljutnje ili neprijateljstva .

    151 . Stojeći, sjedeći , ili hodanje ili čak i kada leži dok budna

    Namjeravam ovaj mentalni stav , to se zovebožanska Abiding . .

    152 . Ne tarrying u svakom pogledu , postali čestiti i doći do pravednosti gledišta

    Pohlepa za senzualnosti smiriti , nije ponovno rođen u maternici .

  • Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    16 ) Klasična Hrvatska

    Devyani Untouchable ( Planirano kaste ) , pa Centar reagirao kasno : Maya

    http://www.indiablooms.com/NewsDetailsPage/2013/newsDetails181213g.php9 .

    Indijka
    news portal IBNS | Indian News Portal | Indian News Online | Najnovije
    Indian News | Trenutni Indian News | Vijesti iz Indije , Indija Vijesti ,
    World News

    Devyani Untouchable ( Planirano kaste ) , pa Centar reagirao kasno : Maya

    Znam da ne bi trebao donijeti kasta u ovom pitanju . Ali čini
    sesredišnja država reagirao kasno , jer ova djevojka jeUntouchable (
    Planirano kaste ) , ” rekao je Mayawati u Rajya Sabha .

    ” Što se dogodilo s djevojkom bio neprikladan .Metoda kojaslijedi SAD u provjeri djevojka nije prihvatljivo “, rekla je ona .

    Njezina
    izjava odmah stvorio pometnju u Gornjem domu indijskog parlamenta sa
    Kongres zastupnici prosvjeduju protiv nje primjedbu .

    Da da , Mayawati rekao je : ” Zašto seKongres stvara gužvu u Saboru Idemo priznati da je onaPlanirano kaste ? “.

    ” Moramo razmotriti pitanje sa SAD-om i biti čvrsta o tome . Također , moramo provjeriti našu vanjsku politiku . “

    Otac
    Devyani Khobragade rekao da je ono što je učinio svojoj kćeri bio
    apsolutno grozan i da je ona odgovorna za diplomatski imunitet .

    Prema
    izvješćima , Devyani Khobragade , koji je uhićen zbog navodnog viznog
    prijevare i lisicama u javnom mišljenju prošlog tjedna , navodno je
    skinuo i tražili u policijskoj postaji u New Yorku .

    Također je navodno zadržao u pritvoru sa zajedničkim kriminalaca i narkomana .

    Za Vašu informaciju ,
    Bhanteji

    Na Četvrtak, 19 prosinca, 2013 17:05 , Vinaya je napisao :

    Dragi svi ,
    Molimo čitati poštu u nastavku vidjeti pravu stranu priče …
    Imamo 75 potpisa na White House Peticija … Trebamo još 75 kako bi se pretraživati ​​….
    Molim Vas da se što prije … To jevrijeme pokazati naše jedinstvo i snagu … To traje 2 minute , otvoriti račun i potpisati peticiju sada …

    Pozdrav ,
    Vinaya

    Objavljeno komentari
    http://www.indiablooms.com/NewsDetailsPage/2013/newsDetails181213g.php?comm=1
    na

    i potpisan je prije moguće . To jevrijeme pokazati naše jedinstvo i snagu … To traje 2 minute , otvoriti račun i potpisati peticiju sada …

    JC

  • inhaler

    This is a really interesting article. Usually this subject tends to be oversimplified and the situation is much more complex. People in the countries of former Yugoslavia are generally sensitive to the question of language since it is seen as such a huge part of (national) identity. I am from Croatia and have no trouble communicating with someone from Serbia or Bosnia. But language is not merely a matter of linguistic properties, it’s a social phenomenom. And I think your article demonstrates that. I’m late, posting a comment to an article from July. :)

    • http://www.pereltsvaig.com Asya Pereltsvaig

      Not at all, thank you for sharing your thoughts!

  • Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    நெப்போலியன்
    கூறினார் “நான் இரண்டு பட்டாலியன்களை எதிர்கொள்ள முடியும் ஆனால்
    இரண்டு பத்திரிகைகாரர்களை எதிர்கொள்ள முடியாது. இன்று அவர்கள் மக்களின்
    மிக மோசமான எதிரி ஆகி இறுக்கிரார்கள் . அவர்கள் மிகவும் ஊழல், மதவாத
    மற்றும் சாதி வெறி படித்தவர்களாக மற்றும் பணக்கார சாதி இனவாத சக்திகளுக்கு
    ஆதரவாக முற்றிலும் சார்ந்திருக்கிறார்கள் .

    60)
    Classical Norwegian Once Napolean said” I can face two battalions, but
    not two scribes. Today the media is the worst enemy of the people. They
    are most corrupt and totally biased in favour of rich communa, casteist
    and racist elements. Devyani Untouchable (Scheduled caste), so Centre
    reacted late: Maya Devyani Untouchable (Scheduled caste), so Centre
    reacted late: Maya “I know I should not bring caste into this issue. But
    it seems the central government reacted late since this girl is a
    Untouchable (Scheduled caste),” Mayawati said in the Rajya Sabha. “What
    happened with the girl was inappropriate. The method which the US
    followed in checking the girl is not acceptable,” she said. Her
    statement immediately created an uproar in the Upper House of the Indian
    Parliament with Congress MPs protesting against her remark. To that,
    Mayawati said: “Why is the Congress creating a ruckus in Parliament?
    Let’s admit she is a Scheduled Caste.” “We must take up the issue with
    the US and be firm about it. Also, we need to check our foreign policy.”
    The father of Devyani Khobragade said that what was done to his
    daughter was absolutely atrocious and that she is liable for diplomatic
    immunity. According to reports, Devyani Khobragade, who was arrested for
    alleged visa fraud and handcuffed in public view last week, was
    allegedly stripped and searched at a police station in New York. She was
    also allegedly kept in a lockup with common criminals and drug addicts.
    FYI, Bhanteji On Thursday, 19 December 2013 5:05 PM, Vinaya wrote: Dear
    All, Please read the mail below to see the real side of the story… We
    have 75 signatures on the White House Petition… We need another 75 to
    make it searchable…. Please sign ASAP… This is the time to show our
    unity and strength… It takes 2 minutes, create an account and sign
    the petition NOW… Regards, Vinaya Posted comments to
    http://Www.Indiablooms.Com/NewsDetailsPage/2013/newsDetails181213g.Php?Comm=1
    To And signed ASAP. This is the time to show our unity and strength…
    It takes 2 minutes, create an account and sign the petition NOW… JC
    Dr. Ashok Siddharth, Marasandra Muniappa, N Mahesh spoke on Reservations
    in Private Sectors& in Promotions at Tumkur which was a wonderful
    experience for all SC/ST/OBC and Minorities Employees Federation Member.
    It was resolved to conduct orientation programs in all District&
    Taluk for employees.
    60 ) کلاسیک نروژی

    هنگامی که Napolean گفت: ” من می توانم دو گردان دو کاتبان روبرو هستند ، اما نیست.
    امروز رسانه ها بدترین دشمن مردم است . آنها فاسد ترین و کاملا به نفع communa غنی، casteist و عناصر نژادپرست مغرضانه می باشد.

    Devyani نجس ( طبقه برنامه ریزی شده ) ، به طوری که مرکز واکنش نشان داد اواخر : مایا

    Devyani نجس ( طبقه برنامه ریزی شده ) ، به طوری که مرکز واکنش نشان داد اواخر : مایا

    من می دانم که من باید طبقه به این موضوع را ندارد . اما به نظر می رسد
    دولت مرکزی اواخر واکنش نشان دادند از این دخترنجس ( طبقه برنامه ریزی شده )
    است ، ” مایاواتی در Rajya سبها گفت .

    او گفت: ” چه با دختر اتفاق افتاد نامناسب است. روش که ایالات متحده آمریکا تشریح شده در چک کردن دختر قابل قبول نیست ” .

    بیانیه او فورا داد و بیداد در مجلس سنا از مجلس هند با کنگره نمایندگان مجلس در اعتراض به سخن او ایجاد شده است.

    برای رسیدن به این ، مایاواتی گفت : ” چرا کنگره ایجاد هیاهو در مجلس بیایید اعتراف او یک طبقه برنامه ریزی شده است . “

    “ما باید این موضوع را با ایالات متحده را تا و شرکت در مورد آن. همچنین، ما نیاز به بررسی سیاست خارجی ما است.”

    پدر Devyani Khobragade گفت که آنچه که به دخترش انجام شد کاملا بی رحم بود و او مسئول مصونیت دیپلماتیک است .

    بر
    اساس گزارش ، Devyani Khobragade ، که برای تقلب ویزا اتهام دستگیر و در
    هفته گذشته دستبند در ملاء عام شد ، گفته می شود محروم شد و جستجو در یک
    ایستگاه پلیس در نیویورک است.

    او همچنین گفته در یک قفل با مجرمان عادی و معتادان به مواد مخدر نگه داشته شد.

    FYI ،
    Bhanteji

    در تاریخ پنجشنبه، 2013 دسامبر 19 05:05 ، Vinaya نوشته است:

    دوستان عزیز ،
    لطفا پست الکترونیکی به دیدن طرف واقعی از داستان زیر را بخوانید …
    ما 75 امضا در دادخواست کاخ سفید … ما باید 75 رو به جستجو ….
    لطفا ثبت نام ASAP … این زمان برای نشان دادن وحدت و قدرت ما است … طول می کشد تا 2 دقیقه ، ایجاد یک حساب کاربری و ثبت نام در این طومار با شرکت …

    با احترام،
    Vinaya

    نظرات ارسال شده به
    http://www.indiablooms.com/NewsDetailsPage/2013/newsDetails181213g.php؟comm=1
    به

    و ASAP را امضا کردند. این زمان برای نشان دادن وحدت و قدرت ما است … طول می کشد تا 2 دقیقه ، ایجاد یک حساب کاربری و ثبت نام در این طومار با شرکت …

    JC

    دکتر Ashok
    دارند Siddharth ، Marasandra Muniappa ، N ماهش در رزرو در بخش خصوصی و
    در جوایز در Tumkur صحبت کرد که یک تجربه فوق العاده برای همه SC / ST /
    OBC و اقلیت های کارکنان فدراسیون کاربران بود. این برای انجام برنامه های گرایش در تمام منطقه و Taluk برای کارکنان حل و فصل شد .

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  • Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    17 ) Klasična Hrvatska

    Neka Ti i sva bića bi se ikad sretan , dobro i sigurno !
    Svi vi ikada živjeti dugo!
    Svi vi ikada Tiho , Tiho , Alert , pažljiv i
    Staloženost uma s jasnim razumijevanjem da se sve mijenja !

    SAD neće suočiti s problemima s novim Bahujan Samaj ( većinski narod ) pokreta premijer kandidata

    SAD
    neće imati nikakve ograde – krpanje veze s Bahujan Samaj ( većinski
    narod ) Pokreta najvidljiviji političku figuru i koji bi htjeli biti
    ekonomski reformator .

    To
    bi bila gospođa Mayawati ,4. vrijeme ministar šef zemlje prosperitetu
    državi Uttar Pradesh ,oaza gospodarskog uspjeha na sjeveru između
    glavnoga grada Delhi i Populor UP . Mayawati
    , kojega Bahujan Samaj ( većinski narod ) pokret je odabrao kao svog
    kandidata za premijera , radi glatko na provedbi raspodjelu bogatstva u
    zemlji jednako među svim dijelovima društva prema uputama u Ustavu za
    blagostanja , sreće i mira čitav narod i za njih da postignu Etrernal Blaženstvo kao njihov konačni cilj .
    RSSized
    kultni vjeruje u brahmani su prvi stopa , Baniyas što drugi stope ,
    kshtriyas kao treći brzinom i shudhras kao četvrti stopa atmans ( dušu) i
    nedodirljivi nemaju dušu , tako da oni učiniti sve vrste fizičke i
    mentalne povrede njima . Probuđeni sa svijesti nikad ne vjeruje u bilo kojoj duši . Svi su jednaki jedoba stare kulture , jer svatko pripadaju istoj utrci . SC / OPS imaju ustavnu zaštitu zbog Dr.Ambedkar ‘s borbom baš kao Nelson Mandela se borio protiv diskriminacije utrke . Alikasta diskriminacija prakticirala RSSized kult je najgori od rasne diskriminacije . Budući
    da su ostali nazadan kaste manjine kao što su muslimani i kršćani su
    dio izvornog utrke koja je dobila nikakvu zaštitu Costitutional oni su
    povrijeđeni.

    Više od bilo koje druge velike političke figure na indijskom sceni , Mayawati ima vatrene obožavatelje . Njezini
    obožavatelji kažu da je ono što nam je trebalo kako bi dobili na s
    prijeko potrebne gospodarske reforme , nije bilo komunalni neredi u
    njezinoj rodnoj državi koji koštaju bilo života, uključujući muslimane .

    US
    može odlučiti u žurbi , međutim , ako je Mayawati BSP ne dovoljno dobro
    da se uzrujaodugo vladajuće , ali podijeljena Kongresna stranka i
    drugima na izborima iduće godine za Lok Sabha , donjem domu parlamenta ,
    koji bira premijera ministar . Ishod
    je siguran da je hrabrost u zemlji kao istinski sekularne države koje
    tolerira sve vjerskih uvjerenja , jer više od 95 % od 1,2 milijardi plus
    stanovništva su Probuđeni one sa sviješću.

    .
    Ali za castiest i komunalne pristranosti Izbornog povjerenstva oni ne
    bi bili tamo gdje are.The CIK naredio drapiranje slon simbol BSP kada je
    gospođa Mayawati jeCM od gore i sveSC / ST / OBC kipovi su također zamotan . Nakon
    toga mnogi izbori Državni zbor su provedeni bez CIK naručivanja
    drapping od bilo Cong simbolom ruke , ili BJP simbol Lotus ( nacionalni
    cvijet ) ili Jayalailtha je Leaf simbol . Takođerizborno
    povjerenstvo nije napravio izvorni kod glasovanja Machines javnosti
    koji nisu nagovarati dokaz koji je otišao u korist svih tih žena . Mediji
    koji je napravio veliku gužvu na Elephant i SC / ST / OBC ikone kipova
    čuva mute tišinu u slučaju gornje kaste ikone kipovima i Cong , BJP
    izbornih simbola .
    Članak pisac Rukmini Shrinivasan iizdavač

    Hindu Povratak na naslovnicu

    http://www.newsco.me/content/go/story?news=527222

    http://www.indiaeveryday.in/news-women-leaders-who-went-from-struggle-to-success-1005-6314314.htm

    dom
    mora biti široka istomišljenika kao narodu SAD-a koji su bili raceists izabran Obama po drugi put kao predsjednik . To je bio rezultat borbe Nelsona Mandelu . To je zbog DR.Ambedkar je duga borba gđa Mayawati postala HAC za četiri puta . brahmin
    autor i mediji moraju probuditi ljude da postanu široka istomišljenika
    predati glavni ključ za gđa Mayawati od BSP koji je veličanstven i
    zapovjednički i ugledni glavni ministar . Nakon
    katalogiziranja pletiva i pretvara u svojoj političkoj karijeri , ovaj
    voditelj prešla je dug put za identifikaciju slabije dijelove , ona je
    razvio sliku nekog “Željezna Lady ” . Njezina će budućnost biti svijetla kao ona igra svoje karte dobro .

    “MANUVAD napad na Bahujan Samaj ( većinski narod ) Demokracija pokret jeMANUVAD napad na demokraciju sama ! ” – JC

  • Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
  • Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    60 ) کلاسیک فارسی

    ممکن است شما و تمام موجودات میزان شاد ، خوب و امن است !
    ممکن است شما تمام میزان زنده باد !
    ممکن است شما تمام هم، آرام ، ساکت و آرام، هشدار ، توجه و
    متانت ذهن با درک این موضوع که همه چیز در حال تغییر است !

    ایالات متحده آمریکا را با مشکلات جدید Bahujan Samaj برای (اکثریت مردم ) نامزد نخست وزیر جنبش صورت نمی

    ایالات
    متحده هیچ شخصیت سیاسی قابل رویت ترین حصار – مرمت به کار با Bahujan
    Samaj برای (اکثریت مردم ) جنبش ندارد و می شود اصلاح طلب اقتصادی است.

    خواهد
    بود که خانم مایاواتی ،4 هم وزیر از رونق اوتار پرادش استان کشور، واحه ای
    از موفقیت های اقتصادی در شمال بین پایتخت دهلی نو و Populor UP . مایاواتی
    ، که Bahujan Samaj برای (اکثریت مردم ) جنبش به عنوان نامزد خود برای
    نخست وزیری انتخاب شده است، در حال اجرا صاف در اجرای توزیع ثروت از کشور
    به طور مساوی در بین تمام بخش های جامعه را در قانون اساسی برای رفاه ،
    شادی و صلح از کارگردانی تمامی مردم و برای آنها برای رسیدن به Etrernal سعادت به عنوان هدف نهایی خود را .
    فرقه
    RSSized معتقد است که در برهمن به عنوان نرخ 1 ، بنی یاس به میزان 2 ،
    kshtriyas به عنوان نرخ 3 و shudhras به عنوان atmans نرخ 4 ( روح ) و نجس
    هیچ روح به طوری که آنها انجام تمام انواع آسیب جسمی و روحی به آنها. بیدار یکی با آگاهی هرگز به روح معتقد بودند . همه برابر هستند فرهنگ قدیمی سن است از هر یک متعلق به یک نژاد هستند . SC / STS حفاظت از قانون اساسی به دلیل مبارزه Dr.Ambedkar را فقط به عنوان نلسون ماندلا علیه تبعیض نژادی مبارزه . اما تبعیض طبقهکه توسط فرقه RSSized بدترین از تبعیض نژاد است . از
    آنجا که دیگر اقلیت ها رو به عقب طبقات مانند مسلمانان و مسیحیان بخشی از
    مسابقه اصلی که کردم هیچ حمایت Costitutional آنها نیز لطمه می خورد.

    بیش از هر شکل مهم سیاسی دیگر در صحنه هند ، مایاواتی است تحسین حرارت . طرفداران
    او می گویند او چیزی است که این کشور به منظور دریافت در با اصلاحات
    اقتصادی به شدت مورد نیاز نیاز دارد و هیچ شورش های اجتماعی در دولت خانه
    اش آن است که هر زندگی از جمله مسلمانان هزینه وجود دارد.

    ایالات
    متحده ممکن است برای تصمیم گیری در عجله ، با این حال ، اگر BSP مایاواتی
    را به خوبی به اندازه کافی برای ناراحت طولانی حاکم اما حزب کنگره و دیگران
    در انتخابات سال آینده برای Lok سبها ، خانه پایین تر از مجلس، که تصمیم
    نخست تقسیم وزیر. نتیجه
    حاصل کنید که فطرت کشور را به عنوان یک حکومت واقعا سکولار است که تحمل
    همه باورهای مذهبی به دلیل بیش از 95٪ از جمعیت 1.2 میلیارد به علاوه هستند
    کسانی که با آگاهی بیدار است .

    اما
    برای castiest و تعصب جمعی از کمیسیون انتخابات آنها شده اند جایی که آنها
    are.The CEC draping نماد فیل از BSP دستور داده بود که خانم مایاواتیCM
    از UP بود و تمامی SC / ST / مجسمه OBC نیز بود بخور . پس
    از آن بسیاری از انتخابات مجلس ایالتی بدون CEC سفارش drapping یا کانگ
    نماد HAND ، و یا BJP نماد لوتوس ( گل ملی ) یا نماد برگ Jayalailtha انجام
    شد. همچنین CEC تا به کد منبع از رای گیری ماشین آلات عمومی است که اثبات آن به نفع تمام این زنان رفت و رشوه دادن نیست ساخته شده است. رسانه
    ها که هیاهو بزرگ در فیل و SC / ST / OBC آیکون مجسمه های ساخته شده سکوت
    قطع در مورد بالا مجسمه آیکون و طبقه و کانگ ، نمادها انتخابات BJP نگه
    داشته شود.
    نویسنده مقاله Rukmini Shrinivasan و ناشر

    هندو بازگشت به جوملا

    http://www.newsco.me/content/go/story؟news=527222

    http://www.indiaeveryday.in/news-women-leaders-who-went-from-struggle-to-success-1005-6314314.htm

    خانه
    باید تبدیل به گسترده مانند مردم آمریکا بودند که raceists اوباما برای دومین بار به عنوان رئیس جمهور انتخاب می شوند فکر. این نتیجه مبارزه نلسون ماندلا بود. این به دلیل مبارزه طولانی DR.Ambedkar را خانم مایاواتی بود CM برای چهار برابر شد. نویسنده
    تحت تملک و رسانه ها باید بیدار مردم برای تبدیل شدن به گسترده فکر به دست
    بیش از KEY MASTER به خانم مایاواتی از BSP که با شکوه و مغرور است ، و
    وزیر محترم . پس
    از فهرست نویسی پیچ و تاب در فعالیت های سیاسی او، این رهبر است راه
    طولانی شناسایی بخش های ضعیف تر است ، او تا به یک تصویر از یک ” بانوی آهن
    ” توسعه یافته است. آینده او روشن خواهد شد او به عنوان بازی می کند کارت های خود را به خوبی .

    “A حمله MANUVAD در BAHUJAN Samaj برای (اکثریت مردم ) جنبش دموکراسی حمله MANUVAD در دموکراسی خود است ! ” – JC