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Articles in Struggles Between States

Britain Vs. Spain and Spain Vs. Morocco in the Strait of Gibraltar

By Martin W. Lewis | August 23, 2010 | 6 Comments

Maritime chokepoints, where ships must pass through narrow passageways, are sites of geopolitical advantage that have often been contested. Sea-based empires, especially Portugal in the 1500s and Britain in the 1800s, seized and garrisoned towns and fortresses at the entrance to marine chokepoints scattered over vast distances. Today, remnants of earlier imperial projects are evident

The Cold War Between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

By Martin W. Lewis | April 21, 2010 | 2 Comments

In August 2008, the New York Times described Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as being locked in a “cold war.” Recently, the conflict has warmed up. In early 2010, Uzbekistan imposed a partial blockade on Tajikistan, a much poorer country poorly tied into global transportation networks. Uzbek authorities have been holding freight cars at the border, stifling

Peace Between Sudan and Chad?

By Martin W. Lewis | February 11, 2010 |

On February 9, 2010, the leaders of Sudan and Chad agreed to quit supporting rebel movements in the other’s territory, thus promising to end one of Africa’s proxy wars. They also pledged to discuss mutual development projects along the war-ravaged border. Such initiatives could diminish tensions in western Sudan (Darfur) and adjacent areas in eastern

South Ossetia Gains Recognition

By Martin W. Lewis | December 27, 2009 | 2 Comments

South Ossetia is a self-declared independent country located in what the United States and most of the international community regards as Georgian territory. It has functioned as an autonomous client state of Russia ever since the breakup of the Soviet Union in

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