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Does Pakistan Claim Junagadh in the Indian State of Gujarat?

By Martin W. Lewis | April 22, 2014 |

India and Pakistan’s territorial conflict over Kashmir (“Jammu and Kashmir” officially) is well known, as are the complications that it creates for cartographers. Maps produced in India must portray all of the disputed area as Indian land, while Pakistani maps show it as part of Pakistan. Outside observers who try to remain impartial usually divide these two countries at the …

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India and Indonesia: Pronounced Differences in Electoral Geography

By Martin W. Lewis | April 18, 2014 |

As India and Indonesia, the world’s largest and third largest democracies respectively, carry out their complex 2014 national elections, it is worthwhile to compare their political and electoral developments since independence. Although the two countries have much in common, they have taken a markedly different direction in political ideology and electoral geography. In India today, two major and several minor …

Ukraine-Romania Border Conflict over Islands

By Asya Pereltsvaig | April 15, 2014 | 2 Comments

insula_serpilor_map-by-bogdan-giuscaA recent mini-series of GeoCurrents posts by Claire Negiar discussed divided islands that were in the past, or still are, bones of contention between sovereign states. Other islands have become the subject of international disputes in their entirety. One case is Damansky (Zhenbao) Island, which has been disputed by Russia and China, as discussed in an earlier GeoCurrents post. Another example is Snake Island, also known as Serpent Island, or Ostriv Zmiinyi in Ukrainian and Insula șerpilor in Romanian. This tiny islet—with a total area of 0.066 square miles (0.17 square kilometers)—has been at the center of a dispute between Ukraine and Romania. Although the Snake Island is now officially recognized as part of Ukraine, with the territorial limits of the continental shelf around the island having been delineated by the International Court of Justice in 2009, some discontent remains on the Romanian side.

Are We “The United States of Smoking”?

By Asya Pereltsvaig | April 13, 2014 | One Comment

On March 14, 2014, The Washington Post online published an article by Reid Wilson entitled “The United States of smoking: The state with the most tobacco farms smokes most often”. Although much in this article is factually true and is instructive, I object to the title, on two grounds.
The first problem concerns the epithet “the United States of smoking”. Even …

Cyprus: Between East and West?

By Claire Negiar | April 10, 2014 | 10 Comments

(Note: This is the second of two articles by Stanford student Claire Negiar that together contrast the situations of two geopolitically divided islands: Saint Martin and Cyprus)
Cyprus and Saint Martin – two very different islands sharing one key property: both are split by their “mother countries,” Greece and Turkey in the case of Cyprus, France and the Netherlands in the …

Saint Martin/Sint Maarten: An Island Divided

By Claire Negiar | April 7, 2014 | 9 Comments

(Note: Today’s post is by Claire Negiar, a Stanford senior, soon to graduate. Claire will be writing a few posts over the coming weeks, many of them focused on France and French dependencies.)
Saint Martin. Sint Maarten. A crossroad between North and South, split between France and the Netherlands, Saint Martin has known a different fate in the aftermath of decolonization …

Ukrainian Regionalism and the Federal Option

By Martin W. Lewis | April 4, 2014 | 35 Comments

Like many other pundits, David Frum fears that Vladimir Putin is plotting to transform Ukraine into a weak federation and then transform some of its federal units into de facto Russian dependencies. As he argues in a recent Atlantic article:
In the weeks since Russian forces seized Crimea, Vladimir Putin’s plan for mainland Ukraine has become increasingly clear: partition. Putin’s ambassadors …

“Rabinovich for President!”—Will Ukraine Have a Jewish President?

By Asya Pereltsvaig | April 1, 2014 | 3 Comments

Although for many Ukrainians and Russians the heading of this post may sound as a beginning of an anti-Semitic joke, Ukraine could conceivably soon have a Jewish president. At least, it now has a Jewish candidate in the running: businessman and philanthropist Vadim Rabinovich submitted his candidacy for the May 25, 2014 Presidential Elections. Rabinovich is a self-nominated candidate, not representing any political party.

“In the Ukraine”? “In Ukraine”? “On Ukraine”?—Clarifying the Issue

By Asya Pereltsvaig | March 30, 2014 | 107 Comments

A recent article in The Washington Post by Katie Zezima asked whether the country should be referred to as “the Ukraine” or simply “Ukraine”, without the definite article. Recent usage of the article with the country’s name by several American politicians apparently raised some ire on the part of certain Ukrainian pundits. It is time for GeoCurrents to dispel some myths about this issue.

The Rusyn Issue in Zakarpattia (Transcarpathia)

By Asya Pereltsvaig | March 27, 2014 | 22 Comments

As mentioned in an earlier GeoCurrents post, Zakarpattia Oblast in far western Ukraine is a perfect example of how ethno-linguistic tensions affect geopolitical outcomes. Even deciding on a neutral term for the region can be challenging. The Russian/Ukrainians toponym “Zakarpattia” translates into English as “Transcarpatia”, while from the Hungarian perspective it is called “sub‑Carpathian Ukraine”, the more neutral term being Carpathian Ruthenia. The latter term is related to the ethnonym and language name “Ruthenian”, which as we shall see below, is itself quite problematic. In the remainder of this post, the local toponym “Zakarpattia” will be used, for the lack of a more neutral term. So who are the Rusyn, how many of them are there, and what language do they speak?

Energy Issues in the Ukrainian Crisis

By Martin W. Lewis | | 3 Comments

Energy issues figure prominently in many discussions of the conflict in Ukraine. As is often noted, Europe’s reliance on Russian natural gas gives Moscow significant leverage. Ukraine, moreover, is weakened by its own dependence on Russian energy, and its situation is complicated by the Russian natural gas pipelines that transverse its territory. Less often noted are Ukraine’s own significant gas …

The Challenges of Transnistria’s Potential Accession to the Russian Federation

By Asya Pereltsvaig | March 26, 2014 | 6 Comments

The previous GeoCurrents post considered a number of proposals for various ethnic territories to either leave or join the Russian Federation that have emerged in the wake of the Crimean referendum. The most likely next candidate to join Russia is Transnistria, a narrow strip of land between the River Dniester in the west and the eastern Moldovan border with Ukraine …

Are You In or Out?—The Potential Unraveling of Geopolitical Tapestry in the Wake of the Crimean Referendum

By Asya Pereltsvaig | March 25, 2014 | 20 Comments

As the Crimean citizens voted to secede from Ukraine and to join the Russian Federation, the territorial tapestry of Eastern Europe has perhaps begun to unravel. A number of countries neighboring Russia worry about a possible military incursion or even annexation of (some of) their territory on the grounds of “protecting the local ethnic Russian population”. Other ethnic regions want to either join Russia or to leave it.

Russian Envelopment? Ukraine’s Geopolitical Complexities

By Martin W. Lewis | March 24, 2014 | 12 Comments

The current issue of Time magazine features an article by Robert Kaplan that emphasizes the geographical aspects of what he refers to as “endless chaos and old-school conflicts,” especially in regard to Ukraine. In general, I appreciate Kaplan’s insistence on the abiding importance of geography and I am impressed by his global scope of knowledge, although I do think that …

Do “Native Americans and Russians share the same language”?

By Asya Pereltsvaig | March 20, 2014 | 32 Comments

GeoCurrents has extensively criticized the mainstream media for its gross misrepresentations of current linguistic research, with headlines such as “English Language ‘Originated in Turkey’”, which does little but deceive and confuse the public. The recent headline in The Daily Mail “Native Americans and Russians share the same language: Dialects reveal how ancestors migrated 13,000 years ago” is another example of such blatant inaccuracy that reveals ignorance of the subject being reported. Leaving aside the imprecise use of the term “dialect” (dialect of what? a language whose other dialects do not reveal the same thing?), the claim that “Native Americans and Russians share the same language” is nonsensical. This problem is not limited to the headline, as the very first sentence of the article states that “It’s been known for years that some Native Americans and Russians share ancestors”—a sentence that presupposes the unquestionable truth of what is in actuality a highly problematic proposition.

What Languages and Their Geography Reveal About History

By Asya Pereltsvaig | March 19, 2014 | 60 Comments

Dear Readers,
As we have mentioned earlier, Martin Lewis and I gave a lecture on the history and geography of languages at the ninth edition of the Festival delle Scienze in Rome in January 2014. The topic of our lecture was “What Languages and Their Geography Reveal About History”.
Here is the short abstract of the lecture:
Over the past decade, a well-funded …